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[Much of the following information is adapted from Appropriate Technology for Water Supply and Sanitation, by Feachem et al., World Bank, 1980.10 This comprehensive work cites 394 references from throughout the world, and was carried out as part of the World Bank's research project on appropriate technology for water supply and sanitation.]

Clearly, even the primitive composting of humanure for agricultural purposes does not necessarily pose a threat to human health, as evidenced by the Hunzas. Yet, fecal contamination of the environment certainly can pose a threat to human health. Feces can harbor a host of disease organisms which can contaminate the environment to infect innocent people when human excrement is discarded as a waste material. In fact, even a healthy person apparently free of disease can pass potentially dangerous pathogens through their fecal material, simply by being a carrier. The World Health Organization estimates that 80% of all diseases are related to inadequate sanitation and polluted water, and that half of the world's hospital beds are occupied by patients who suffer from water-related diseases.11 As such, the composting of humanure would certainly seem like a worthwhile undertaking worldwide.

The following information is not meant to be alarming. It's included for the sake of thoroughness, and to illustrate the need to compost humanure, rather than to try to use it raw for agricultural purposes. When the composting process is side-stepped and pathogenic waste is issued into the environment, various diseases and worms can infect the population living in the contaminated area. This fact has been widely documented.

For example, consider the following quote from Jervis (1990): "The use of night soil [raw human fecal material and urine] as fertilizer is not without its health hazards. Hepatitis B is prevalent in Dacaiyuan [China], as it is in the rest of China. Some effort is being made to chemically treat [humanure] or at least to mix it with other ingredients before it is applied to the fields. But chemicals are expensive, and old ways die hard. Night soil is one reason why urban Chinese are so scrupulous about peeling fruit, and why raw vegetables are not part of the diet. Negative features aside, one has only to look at satellite photos of the green belt that surrounds China's cities to understand the value of night soil."12

On the other hand, "worms and disease" are not spread by properly prepared compost, nor by healthy people. There is no reason to believe that the manure of a healthy person is dangerous unless left to accumulate, pollute water with intestinal bacteria, or breed flies and/or rats, all of which are the results of negligence or bad customary habits. It should be understood that the breath one exhales can also be the carrier of dangerous pathogens, as can one's saliva and sputum. The issue is confused by the notion that if something is potentially dangerous, then it is always dangerous, which is not true. Furthermore, it is generally not understood that the carefully managed thermophilic composting of humanure converts it into a sanitized agricultural resource. No other system of fecal material and urine recycling or disposal can achieve this without the use of dangerous chemical poisons or a high level of technology and energy consumption.

Even urine, usually considered sterile, can contain disease germs (see Table 7.1). Urine, like humanure, is valuable for its soil nutrients. It is estimated that one person's annual urine output contains enough soil nutrients to grow grain to feed that person for a year.13 Therefore, it is just as important to recycle urine as it is to recycle humanure, and composting provides an excellent means for doing so.

The pathogens that can exist in human feces can be divided into four general categories: viruses, bacteria, protozoa, and worms (helminths).

Table 7.1


Healthy urine on its way out of the human body may contain up to 1,000 bacteria, of several types, per milliliter. More than 100,000 bacteria of a single type per milliliter signals a urinary tract infection. Infected individuals will pass pathogens in the urine that may include:

Bacteria Disease
Salmonella typhi Typhoid
Salmonella paratyphi Paratyphoid fever
Leptospira Leptospirosis
Yersinia Yersiniosis
Escherichia coli Diarrhea
Worms Disease
Schistosoma haematobium schistosomiasis

Source: Feachem et al., 1980; and Franceys, et al. 1992; and Lewis, Ricki. (1992). FDA Consumer, September 1992. p. 41.

Table 7.2

For Some Pathogens and Parasites

Pathogen Minimal Infective Dose
Ascaris 1-10 eggs
Cryptosporidium 10 cysts
Entamoeba coli 10 cysts
Escherichia coli 1,000,000-100,000,000
Giardia lamblia 10-100 cysts
Hepatitis A virus 1-10 PFU
Salmonella spp 10,000-10,000,000
Shigella spp 10-100
Streptococcus fecalis 10,000,000,000
Vibrio cholerae 1,000

Pathogens have various degrees of virulence, which is their potential for causing disease in humans. The minimal infective dose is the number of organisms needed to establish infection.

Source: Bitton, Gabriel. (1994). Wastewater Microbiology. New York: Wiley-Liss, Inc., p. 77-78. and Biocycle. September 1998. p. 62.

Source: The Humanure Handbook. Jenkins Publishing, PO Box 607, Grove City, PA 16127. To order, phone: 1-800-639-4099.

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